IALA Buoyage System All mariners need a comprehensive knowledge of the buoyage rules and should be able to instantly identify a navigation mark and understand its meaning. These Flash Cards show buoys and navigational marks in full color, with the meaning and light characteristics on the reverse. This set of cards covers IALA (International Association of Lighthouse Authorities) Regions A & B along with Cardinal, Western Rivers and Inter-coastal Waterways marks. In 1980 the IALA decided to combine two navigation marking systems A and B into one – the IALA System but maintained the color differences. In the IALA System the region A the red color buoys indicate the left side of the channel when entering for seaward. The opposite applies for Region B where the red buoys indicate the right side of the channel (red, right, return). All nautical charts will indicate the IALA buoyage system in use. The IALA System has five types of signs that are used in various associations. The signs have specific identification elements that make them easily recognizable to the sailors. The lateral signs in the Regions A and B are different, but the other four signs are common for these both regions. The lateral buoys and marks are placed according to the direction accepted for marking of the right and left side of the fairway. In the Region A, during the day and night, the green color is used to mark the right side of the fairway, and the red color – to mark the left side. In the Region B the colours are reversed, ie the red color is used for the right side, and the green color – for the left side. Nautical Flashcards make a great gift for sailors!